The 7 rivers of Saraswati valley form the original Sapta Sindhu. (Map Courtesy- K.S Valdiya Report)
- Satluj- Satluj originates at Rakas Sarowar near Kailas and flows through Himachal Pradesh and enters plains in Punjab. It used to flow southwards from Ropar and meet the Saraswati at a place called Shatrana, south of Patiala. The combined river was 6-8 km wide at Shatrana. Yashpal el al (1980) have found palaeochannel of Satluj from Ropar to Shatrana broadly in N-S direction, extending for 75 kms with a width of 1 to 6 km. C. F Oldham in 1873 opined that this channel shifted towards the west from Ropar and began joining the Beas thus depriving of the Saraswati of its crucial waters.
- Ghaggar- Ghaggar originates at Sirmaur in Himachal and flows through Panchkula and it demarcates the boundary between Punjab and Haryana. It used to join the Satluj in ancient times. Today it traces the old path of the Saraswati after Sirsa in Haryana, enters Rajasthan and then vanishes in the Cholistan desert near Bahawalpur.
- Tangri- Tangri or Dangri originates in Morni hills of Himachal and flows through Ambala district. It used to join the Saraswati just downstream from Pehowa. Today it joins the Ghaggar Hakra. It’s palaeochannel have been marked by the satellite images by Bhadra et al in 2009.
- Markanda- Known as Markandeya River. Markanda originates from Dharti Dhar in Himachal and enters plains at Kala Amb. Study by Bajpai and Kshetrimayum in 2011 analyzed underground sand sediments and concluded the Markanda indeed met the Saraswati near Pehowa-Thikri-Malakpur region
- Sarsuti- Sarasuti is considered the original flow of the Saraswati but with its course shifted little to the west. The river originated at Adi Badri in the Siwalik Hills and flows through sites like Mughalwali, Mustafabad, Kurukshetra, Pehowa, Fatehabad and beyond Sirsa traces the course of today’s Ghaggar-Hakra. Study by Chaudhari et all in 2008 revealed the course of Sarsuti near Bhor Saidan in Kurukshetra district to be around 2 km wide. Soil samples from Bir Pipli, Kanepla, etc in Kurukshetra district reveal a palaeochannel that flowed till 2000 BCE.
- Drishadvati- Chautang River today is a seasonal river arising out of the Siwaliks that flows through central Haryana and meets today’s Ghaggar-Hakra near Suratgarh in Rajasthan. In ancient times, this was the Drishadwati River which used to combine with Yamuna and together used to meet Saraswati. Bhadra et al in 2009 used remote sensing satellite data to delineate the channel of Drishadvati in Haryana.
- Yamuna- Yamuna originated at Yamunotri and originally joined the Tons or Tamasa river. But later on, it flowed down from Paonta Sahib and took a west turn to flow through central Haryana, joins the Drishadvati and finally meets the Saraswati near Suratgarh in Rajasthan. Clift et al (2012) did a study on the sediments at IVC site at Ganweriwala, allegedly on the banks of the Saraswati. They reveal similarity with sediments of Yamuna plains showing the Yamuna used to empty in the Saraswati in ancient times.