Saturday, 18 August 2012

Effects of the War of 10 kings (Dashradnya Yuddha)

As discussed in my earlier post, the War of Ten Kings or Dasharadnya Yuddha is one of the major wars described in the Rigved. We have seen how Sudas defeated his enemies and won over much of the land in Sapta-Sindhu region and expanded his kingdom North Panchal which existed in the doab region between Ganga and Saraswati in east Haryana.
But the effects of this war do not stop here. There are many significant effects which can be attributed to this war which in turn was instrumental in giving birth to a contemporary religion to ours- Zoroastrianism
A piece of history which one needs to know is that Sudas' grandson Somaka had also fought with the same people along with the Gautama family rishis. This battle is called Varshagira Battle which took place in Afghanistan. 

Now we all know the Avesta is the scripture of Zoroastrianism and Zoroaster or Zaruthustra is their God. The Avesta in it's Gathas and Vendidad has striking references to Rigvedic people. But how come these people got related to the Vedic people in India?
The answer is, the communities who had to leave India after the War of Ten Kings were indeed those who composed the Avesta...!!!!
Lets have a look at the communities who left India after the war

  • Prithus or Parthavas (VII.83.1): Parthians.
  • Parshus or Parshavas (VII .83.1): Persians.
  • Pakthas (VII.18.7): Pakhtoons.
  • Bhalanas (VII.18.7): Baluchis.
  • Shivas (VII.18.7): Khivas.
  • Vishanins (VII.18.7): Pishachas (Dards).
These were some of the major communities and we find that their names reflect current names in today's Afghanistan and Central Asia.
But apart from this, one more thing in common in these people is that majority of these people belong to the Anu tribe.

Now let us look at the story from the side of the Avesta.
The Avesta states that it's people had roamed 16 lands and gives it's names. The names clearly go in an order from North to south and then towards east. They are-
Sogdiana (Gava), Margiana (Mourv), Bactria (Baxti, Nisaya between Margiana and Bactria, Areia (Haroiva), Kabulistan (Vaekarsta), the Gazni region (Urva), Xnanta, Arachosia (Haraxvaiti), Drangiana (Haetumant), a territory between Zamin-davar and Qal‘at-i-Gilzay (Raya), the Lugar valley (Caxra), Buner (Varana), Punjab (Hapta Handu), Ranha (between the Kabul and the Kurram, in the region where it seems likely the Vedic river Rasa flowed.)  and Airyana Vaejah…
Airyana Vaejah is the 16th land and by logic if the lands start from north to south and then to east, we say that Airyana Vaejah is to the east of Ranha or the area of Rasa which is obviously Kashmir.With a striking similarity, the Puranas also state that indeed the Anu people lived in Kashmir..!!!!

Let us directly look at the references to Vedic people in Avesta-

  • (Y.44.20) of the Gathas directly mentions Ausijas, a branch of Angirasa family.
  • The Angirasa family is always condemned and called Angra Manyu or bad spirit and also Karpana, which is a derogatory term.
  • The term Anu got itself replicated for a region in Afghanistan called Anauon
  • Bhargavas were the priests of the Anus and their names are used interchangeably in the Rigveda RV(5.31.4) with RV(4.16.20) or RV(7.18.14) with RV(7.18.6)
  • Ahur Mazda who led the Avestans out of their land Airyana Vaejah says Angra Manyu had created severe cold due to which they had to leave. 
  • It is mentioned that Zaruthustra had a debate with a person called Nadhyaongha Goetema which is clearly Nodhas Gautama. And the Rigveda also confirms this part of history as we saw that indeed Somaka had gone to Afghanistan for war with the Gautama family of rishis.
  • We know that Kavasha Ailusha was a person who fought against Sudas. This name Kavash also appears in the Avesta. We know Kavi Chayamana was also against Sudas. If these names are combined to Kavi Kavasha, then it sounds similar to Kavi Kavata, the founder of the Avestan dynasty.
  • The Avestan people call themselves Dah ( Das), Dahyu ( Dasyu) and Ahur ( Asur) proudly who were enemies in the Rigveda
  • Also, Indra who is a Deva in Rigveda is ridiculed in Avesta by calling him Andra. The Daeva ( Devas) are their enemy

This gives us a clear indication that indeed the Avestan people were those who migrated from India after the war of 10 kings. These people were Anus which can be proven from their journey to Afghanistan-
First the Avesta tells they were present in Airyana Vaejah which we have shown to be Kashmir. And as stated, even the Purans tell us that Anus were indeed ruling the Kashmir area. Then the Avesta says they shifted to the region of HaptaHandu or Sapta Sindhu or Punjab. And the Puranic history tells us that during the era of Ikshavku king Mandhata, the Druhyus who were then ruling in Punjab were pushed back by him to the far north-west and the vacant place in the Punjab was occupied by Anus who established Kekaya, Madra, Shivi kingdoms there.

So we can scrutinize the different periods of the Anu migrations with respect to the Rigvedic era-
  • Pre-Rigvedic period
The Anus were living in Kashmir. The Avesta was not in existence and very early hymns of Rigveda were in existence
  • Early Rigvedic period
The Anus found vacant space in Punjab due to Mandhata's war with the Druhyus and they shifted to Punjab or Sapta Sindhu, The Avesta was not composed in this time but the Avestans remember this period as their stay in the Hapta-Handu area. In this era, the Anus were in cordial relations with the Bharatas. They even had fought the Hariyupiya war together against the Yadus and Turvasus.
  • Middle Rigvedic period
This was the era of king Sudas when the relations between the Anus and Bharatas declined and they went on war. The Anus were defeated and some of them left India and went further west to Afghanistan. This is the early era of the Avesta. Zaruthustra was existing in there times when he had a debate with Nodhas Gautama. Sudas's grandson Somaka also went to Afghanistan and had war with the Avestan people. This era was the times of tension.
  • Late Rigvedic period
In this era, majority of the Rigved was composed and the Avesta was halfway composed. In this era, the Avestan people got their separate land and the tensions got reduced between them and the Vedic people. Soon everything was forgotten. A new religion of Zoroastrianism had been born in Iran.

One war, and so much effects. And the most positive point of this war description is that we end up proving that the movement of people was from India to central Asia and not vice versa as stated by the Aryan Invasion Theory.

1 comment:

  1. Is it possible to determine the date (even very approximately) from Zoroastrian, Vedic and Puranic sources?